1. When a semiconductor chip contains an N doped region adjacent to a P doped region, a diode junction(often called a PN junction) is formed.
Figure-1 : PN Junction Diode
2. The impurities added to an N type region increases the number of electrons capable of conducting charge, while the impurities added to a P type region increase the number of holes that are capable of conducting charge.
3. In a diode, the P material is called the anode. The N material is called the cathode.
Figure-2 : Anode & Cathode in PN Junction Diode
4. Diodes are useful because electric current will flow through a PN junction in one direction only.
Figure-3 : Direction of Current in PN Junction Diode
5. When the diode is connected so that the current is flowing, it is said to be forward biased. In a forward biased diode, the anode is connected to a higher voltage than the cathode.
Figure-4 : Forward Biased PN Junction Diode
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