Difference between Insulator, Semiconductor & Conductor

(1) Insulators
(2) Semiconductors
(3) Conductors

2016-09-07_7-53-58

Figure 1 – Energy band diagrams for (a) an insulator (b) a semiconductor, and (c) a conductor

Here,
Ev = Top edge of the valence band,
Ec = Bottom edge of the conduction band,
Eg = Bandgap energy or energy gap, Eg = Ec – Ev.

Table 1 – Difference between insulators, semiconductors & Conductors in tabular form

Charactiristics Insulator Semiconductor Conductor
1. Conductivity The conductivity of insulator is very low. The conductivity of semiconductor is moderate. The conductivity of conductor is very high.
2. Resistivity It has very high resistivity. It has moderate resistivity. It has very low resistivity.
3. Forbidden gap It has large forbidden gap. It has small forbidden gap. It has no forbidden gap.
4. Temperature coefficient of resistance Insulator has negative temperature coefficient of resistance. Semiconductor has negative temperature coefficient of resistance Conductor has positive temperature coefficient of resistance.
5. Electrons availability There is small number of electrons available for conduction. There is moderate number of electrons available for conduction. There is large number of electrons available for conduction.
6. Examples Paper, Mica glass. Silicon, Germanium. Metals, aluminium, copper.

Table 2 – Comparing of resistivity between insulators, semiconductors & Conductors in tabular form

S. No. Substance Nature Resistivity
1. Glass Insulator 9 ×1011 Ωm
2. Germanium Semiconductor 0.6 Ωm
3. Copper Good conductor 1.7 ×10−8 Ωm

1 2
Semiconductor Materials – Mcq
Semiconductor Materials – Notes
Semiconductor Materials – IQ

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