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Filters – IQ – 1

1. What is a filter ? 
Filter is a frequency selective circuit that passes signalof specified band of frequencies and attenuates the signals of frequencies outside the band. 

2. What are the demerits of passive filters ?  
Passive filters works well for high frequencies. But at audio frequencies, the inductors become problematic, as they become large, heavy and expensive. For low  frequency applications, more number of turns of wire must be used which in turn adds to the series resistance degrading  inductor’s performance ie, low Q, resulting in high power dissipation. 

3. What are the advantages of active filters ? 
Active filters used op- amp as the active element and resistorsand capacitors as passive elements. By enclosing a capacitor in the feed back loop , inductor less active filters can be obtained.Op-amp used in non – inverting configuration offers high input impedance and low output impedance, thus improving the load drive capacity. 

4. Mention some commonly used active filters : 
(1) Low pass filter 
(2) High pass filter 
(3) Band pass filter 
(4) Band reject filter

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