11. The root locus always starts at the :

(a) open-loop poles

(b) open-loop zeros

(c) closed-loop poles

(d) closed-loop zeros

12. Angles of asymptotes are measured at the centroid with respect to :

(a) negative real axis

(b) positive real axis

(c) imaginary axis

(d) none of these

13. The angle of arrival at a real zero is always :

(a) 0°

(b) 180°

(c) either 0° or 180°

(d) to be calculated for each problem

14. The roots of the characteristic equation are the same as :

(a) open-loop poles

(b) open-loop zeros

(c) closed-loop poles

(d) closed-loop zeros

15. An open-loop transfer function has 4 poles and 1 zero. The number of branches of root locus is :

(a) 4

(b) 1

(c) 5

(d) 3

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