Semiconductor Materials – Notes – 1 – 2

1. Semiconductor materials are any materials with characteristics that fall between those of insulators and conductors.

2. Semiconductor materials are germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), and Gallium arsenide (GaAs).

3. Silicon is used for most semiconductor devices.

4. Valence is an indication of an atom’s ability to gain or lose electrons.

5. Semiconductor materials have valence shells that are half full.

6. Crystals are formed by atoms sharing their valance electrons through covalent bonding.

7. Semiconductor materials have a negative temperature coefficient : As the temperature rises, their resistance decreases.

8. As the temperature increases in a semiconductor material, electrons drift from one atom to another.

9. A hole represents the absence of an electron in the valence shell.

10. A difference of potential, applied to pure semiconductor material, creates a current flow toward the positive terminal and a hole flow toward the negative terminal.

11. Current flow in semiconductor materials consists of both electron flow and hole movement.

12. Doping is the process of adding impurities to a semiconductor material.

13. Pentavalent materials have atoms with five valence electrons and are used to make N-type material.

14. Trivalent materials have atoms with three valence electrons and are used to make P-type material.

15. In N-type material, electrons are the majority carrier and holes are the minority carrier.

16.  In P-type material, holes are the majority carrier and electrons are the minority carrier.

17. N- and P-type semiconductor materials have a higher conductivity than pure semiconductor materials.

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Semiconductor Materials – Mcq
Semiconductor Materials – Notes
Semiconductor Materials – IQ

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